Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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To understand the current Turkish state one should try to know something about Ataturk before. Without it the Turkey we know today would not be possible.

What can be said of him, a character ahead of his time, a privileged mind, a superb strategist. The truth is that he was a man of immeasurable leadership that managed to change an entire country.

A life worth reading. One of the great revolutionaries of the past century, your name Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

Even today, for many a hero, a father, a god,Hope ....

Born in Thessaloniki (Greece) when it was part of the Ottoman Empire, the 19 May 1881 and died 10 November 1938 in the Dolmabahçe Palace. In their 57 years of life got, among other things, change an entire country.

Palacio de Dolmabahçe

Ali Riza Efendi His father died when he was young and had to leave school. For a time he lived in the countryside in his uncle's house, but his mother decided to send him to Thessaloniki with his aunt so he could resume his studies. In high school he received the name "Kemal" (the perfect) by her math teacher, because of their brilliance.

He joined the "Askeri idadisi" Military Academy of the Republic of Macedonia in 1895 and here was noted for his honesty and ambition. At this same time was developing the Turkish-Greek war and just after the military school moved to Istanbul and entered the Marine Military Academy 13 March 1899. There was no freedom of expression, so Mustafa began organizing clandestine meetings.

Mudstaf Kemal

He finished his military training on 4 January 1905 Graduation with captain Chiefs. But I recommend you to , accordance with the organization of their clandestine meetings. It was for this reason that it was out of Istanbul and aimed to V Army Damascus. This is where a secret society be based “Fatherland and Freedom” (Fatherland and Freedom) in 1906 and will become an active opponent to the Ottoman regime.

He returned to Thessaloniki where he formed the 2nd section committee Fatherland and Freedom. In 1907 returns to Damascus and also joins the known Union and Progress Committee “Young Turks” although the match ellos in revolutionary ideas.

Destined to Tripoli to defend the last Ottoman colony that was Northbound Africa.

In 1909 takes part in the Second Congress of the Union and Progress Committee, wherein the conversion of the committee suggested a political party, the army to stay out of politics, that the principle of equality was imposed and government affairs of religious they separated.

In 1911 are sent to Tripoli (Libya later) to participate in the Italo-Turkish War or War in Libya.

In 1913 returns to Istanbul and was appointed commander of the military region Gallipoli eastern coast in Thrace.

Comandante KemalIn 1914 he was appointed Military Attaché of the Turkish Embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria).

World War I begins and this is where the great change will begin of the Ottoman Empire. Turkey enters war alongside Germany. Kemal es aimed at Rodosto (Tekirdag) shores of the Sea of ​​Marmara, and this area included Gallipoli. Here in front of the 19th Division had an outstanding performance in the battles of March and August 1915, defending this area against the Allied landing (English, franceses y ANZAC). This is where his fame as a great strategist and from this time shooting becomes a national hero. Awarded the title of Pasha.

In 1917 and 1918 Featured is the Caucasus to fight the Russians. After a Hedjaz, Arabia (Saudi Arabia).

Mustafa was becoming increasingly critical of the incompetence with which the government of Sultan led war, German as well as control over the sultanate.

In 1918 the Ottomans capitulated. Following the Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918) Ottoman territory was occupied by the various powers of the Triple Alliance. The British occupied the area Moul, French settled in Anatolia (Urfa, Gaziantep, Maras, Adana), Italians stayed in Antalya. But what really exacerbated the Turkish nationalist sentiment was the Greek occupation of Izmir.

After Kemal's disagreement with the armistice of Mudros decided to create the Turkish Nationalist Party, with which organized the national revolution.

In 1920 he was appointed president of the National Assembly and that faced by Greece and Armenia and took their territories received in the Treaty of Sevres.

From 1921 prepares the National Liberation War, following an unprecedented strategy in Turkish history, using all the powers possessed (military, executive and judicial) made the whole population to participate.

The Kemalist principle of National Union, was a vital weapon in the fight against the occupying forces.

His fame grew even more after the Battle of Sakarya which began 23 August 1921. Lasted 22 days and here led by Kemal and his lieutenant Ismet Inönü Turkish troops defeated the Greek army. After this victory he was awarded the rank of Marshal with the title of Gazi (victor). Winning this battle was a decisive impulse Liberation War and made him direct their activities to foreign policy.

The truth is that Mustafa Kemal was present in all the places where it was necessary (Dardanelles, Caucasus, Palestine, Aleppo,…), seemed to possess the gift of ubiquity. Although his country was defeated, he was never defeated.

The 20 October 1921 Ankara agreement is signed and made the withdrawal of French troops from Turkish territory, ensuring political independence, country's military and economic.

Turkish-Russian and Turkish-French relations developed favorably, so the biggest problem the country was the Greek occupation. Greece summoned the powers of the Entente, especially Britain to the war situation that favored.

The 20 August 1922 battles take place Dumlupinar and Afyonkarahisar. The Greek army was decimated and 9 September Greeks were expelled from Smyrna.

The 11 October the armistice was signed in Midanya by which the Turkish sovereignty was reestablished in Eastern Thrace

The Allied powers invited the Ottomans and the government in Ankara to attend a peace conference in Lausanne. The Grand Vizier Tevfik Pasha Kemal contacted to try to reach an agreement with him before going to Switzerland. Taking advantage of the situation, the Grand National Assembly abolished the sultanate. The conference ended with the Treaty of Peace signed 24/07/1923. This nullified the Treaty of Sevres and Turkey recovered all of Anatolia and eastern Thrace.

Nationalist forces took control of Istanbul in November 1922 and 11 months after the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal was proclaimed President thereof. Founded 29 October 1923.

He managed to recover the Turkish national pride and set the objective pull his country out of backwardness in which it was, adopting a series of measures to make it a modern country. It was a revolution; issued a decree in favor of the secularization of Directors, implantó the Monogamiâ, established a new educational system and lay legislation, introduced the Gregorian calendar, changed the Arabic alphabet with the Latin and gave voting rights to women.

Took a radical turn to the country:

-Of Sharia (Islamic law) was replaced by a civil code based on the Swiss

-The caliphate was abolished.

-The title of Pasha was also abolished.

-Islamic theological schools were closed (madrassas).

-In December 1934 gave voting rights to women and also to be elected in Parliament.

-El Fez, typical Ottoman hat was banned.

-The use of veil by women was forbidden and encouraged them to join the workforce.

-All the Turks in 6 and 40 years were forced to go to the new schools to learn new language.

-They created art schools.

-Islamic ban on alcohol rose.

-In 1934 sorting them all Turks to adopt a Last name. Following the creation of this law was when he received the name Kemal Atatürk (parent or ancestor of the Turks).

-Sunday was established as a day of rest.

With all these reforms Turkey became a more modern and advanced country that many Europeans at the same time.

No wonder that after all this became an idol of the masses, a demigod. Across the country venerates him. His image and name appear everywhere, his portrait is on all public buildings, his face on banknotes and coins. Also in most of the homes of Turkish families and schools. And of course his statues in every square.

An idol by which all clocks mark the country's museums 9:05, time that he left this world.

A very intelligent man, ahead of his time, I always dress elegantly. But in war and forgot all these ceremonies became a soldier more .The distinguished bearing that had clear

A man with a peculiar physical in a country of men's hair and dark complexion.

He liked the excess rakî (Turkish national drink). Will this hobby which causes death from cirrhosis to 58 year old. Chain Smoker, lighting a cigarette after another, up 3 packs a day. And, last but not least also exceeded with Turkish coffee. Very handsome and distinguished and who loved women.

The mi opinion, a single character in History, an idol of the masses as few, a born leader and a man who once changed an entire country.

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